Diagnosing inflammation of the prostate gland at present is a very simple procedure for a doctor. Aside from the rare atypical forms of the disease, it is relatively easy to diagnose acute prostatitis.
During the treatment of the disease, the patient must undergo a series of laboratory and instrumental examinations. Patients are often concerned as to why they need to have a PSA general blood test for prostatitis. Not everyone understands the role of this marker in diagnosing the underlying disease.
What is PSA?
Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a special glycoprotein produced exclusively by the cells of the prostate gland. Its main role is the liquefaction of the sperm and the activation of the sperm during the formation of the ejaculate.
This protein is found in the blood, and since it is only produced in the prostate, it partially shows its function and all kinds of injuries.
It is widely used in the diagnosis of diseases such as:
- chronic prostatitis;
- Benign prostatic hyperplasia - prostate adenoma;
- Malignant neoplasms of the male organ - prostate cancer.
A general PSA blood test in chronic prostatitis can show the progress of the disease and a dangerous complication of the disease, which is manifested by the degeneration of damaged cells into atypical ones with the formation of prostate cancer.
Prostate-specific antigen is a tumor marker that can indicate the presence of a tumor at an early stage of its development.
Since the protein is synthesized in the tissues of the male gland, the presence of a small volume in the blood is the norm. The screening threshold for normal activity of a tumor marker is up to 4 ng / mL in the blood.
The amount of protein directly depends on the following factors:
- The age of man. There is some correlation between the patient's age and the activity of producing a marker by the gland;
|Age, years||PSA index, ng / ml|
- The regularity of sexual intercourse;
- The presence of an inflammatory process in the prostate;
- physical trauma and organ damage;
- Postponed surgical interventions or specific diagnostic procedures (prostate massage, digital rectal exploration);
- Taking medications.
All of these aspects can affect the antigen count in the bloodstream and sometimes even confuse doctors. That is why it is necessary to know how to correctly pass a PSA blood test for general male prostatitis, in order for further therapy to be successful.
Preparation of the PSA
Before a man donates blood for prostate specific antigen detection, he must observe some important points that prevent a misinterpretation of the final result.
To avoid laboratory errors, the patient must take into account the following characteristics:
- You do not have to eat 8 hours before the blood draw. You can drink tea, juice or water.
- Avoid cycling, stationary cycling, or long distance walking (>5 km) 24 hours before the start of the study.
- 1 week before the test, it is necessary to refrain from sexual intercourse and masturbation, taking spicy and smoked foods.
- If the patient has undergone transrectal ultrasound of the prostate (TRUS), digital examination of the rectum, colonoscopy or bladder catheterization, it is necessary to wait at least 7 days before determining the PSA in the blood.
- After a prostate biopsy or prostate massage, you need to wait 2 weeks.
Only if all these rules are observed will it be possible to say that the PSA blood test for general prostatitis will be truly reliable.
Decoding and objectives of PSA tests
The main purpose of such an examination is the ability to monitor the course of the chronic form of the disease and quickly identify the problem if a malignant tumor (tumor formation) of the prostate occurs.
In diseases such as acute, chronic, bacterial, congestive prostatitis, the PSA level may slightly increase up to 5 ng / ml. This is still no cause for panic. If, after carrying out adequate drug therapy, the indicator does not normalize, then this is considered an absolute indication for an organ puncture with its subsequent histological examination.
Normally, the larger the volume of the prostate, the more cells are able to produce glycoprotein. It has been clinically shown that 1 gram of organ parenchyma in benign hyperplasia additionally synthesizes 0. 35 ng / ml of antigen. The same indicator for cancer is 3. 5 ng / ml.
This ratio allows doctors with a high degree of reliability to judge the possibility of developing malignant neoplasms in chronic inflammation of the prostate gland. According to statistics, 83% of cancer patients simultaneously suffered from prolonged inflammation in the male gland. This allows us to consider this pathology as a predictor of cancer.
A blood test for PSA in prostatitis is part of the mandatory examinations of urological patients. Its importance can hardly be overestimated, since it can reliably indicate the formation of atypical cell growth, which leads to the development of malignant neoplasms.