In medicine, an infection is understood as the infection of an organ or tissue with various microorganisms, as well as parasites and some insects. Hence, infectious prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate gland caused by bacteria, viruses or fungi.
The first group of microorganisms becomes the culprit most often. Consider what causes a prostate infection, how the disease manifests itself, and how it can be treated in men.
Causes of infectious prostatitis
A healthy man has a defense mechanism against various foreign organisms - the immune system. If this mechanism fails or conditions are created under which infections are stronger than immunity, the prostate tissue becomes infected, which leads to an inflammatory process and unpleasant symptoms.
Infectious prostatitis can be caused by:
- Sex with an infected partner. Even if a woman has no visible symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases, but there is a pathogen, a man can become infected. As a rule, urethritis begins earlier, then an infection along the urinary tract enters the prostate and causes prostatitis there.
- The existing focus of infection in the body. The pathogen can be carried into the prostate with the bloodstream from other organs in case of pneumonia, flu, tooth decay and other diseases.
- Lifestyle features. Alcohol, nicotine, lack of physical activity weaken the immune system, as a result, the bacteria that constantly inhabit the skin and mucous membranes of a person become the culprits of the disease.
- injuries. When engaging in sports, fighting or accidents, a mechanical effect can be exerted on the perineum, which leads to tissue damage of the prostate and can result in an infectious form of the disease.
- Hypothermia. Due to the low ambient temperature and subsequent freezing, the immune system may not be able to cope with the bacteria that have entered the body.
Infection of the prostate gland is possible with some medical procedures and operations. For example, prostatitis can be triggered by catheterization, which was performed in violation of all rules and regulations. In this case, urethritis develops first, and only then, as a complication, prostatitis. Also, the disease can be a complication of the biopsy.
Sexually transmitted infections are the most dangerous for men's health.
Symptoms of the infectious form
Infectious prostatitis always has an acute course, the symptoms appear unexpectedly for the patient, quickly intensify and cause serious concern. It is impossible to ignore the signs of this disease.
Men come to doctors with the following complaints:
- Sharp and often throbbing pain between the anus and the eggs. It can "give" to the genitals, lower back or abdomen.
- Body temperature rise up to 38-39 degrees, fever, chills. The temperature in the rectum can be increased and in the armpits can be kept within the normal range.
- Frequent urination and the need to urinate, especially at night.
- Pain when urinating, intermittent flow of urine, burning in the urethra.
- Weakness, nausea, loss of appetite, muscle or joint pain.
- Stool disorder: Constipation develops or pain occurs during the act of defecation.
- Decreased sexual desire, slow erection, painful ejaculation.
If a man is in no hurry to go to the doctor and is suffering from pain or tries to heal himself with antibiotics and folk remedies, the pain and urinary disorders can pass after some time. The illusion of healing is born. Indeed, the infection did not go away, and the acute form of prostatitis developed into a chronic one. This means that from time to time a man will have exacerbations, and there is also a risk of developing infertility.
Infectious prostatitis can lead to blood poisoning and death of the patient, so there is no time to waste trying to cope on your own.
Modern diagnostic methods
The clinical picture is so pronounced that the doctor can make the correct diagnosis based on the symptoms listed above. In addition to typical complaints, the anamnesis received at the reception is also taken into account, so it is important to contact a medical institution in a timely manner.
To select the correct treatment tactics, it is important to understand more precisely what is happening in the body and which pathogen is causing the pathology. Therefore, a certain amount of examination is required in this case.
During the appointment, the doctor will perform the following activities:
- He will measure the body temperature in the anus and in the armpit (with acute infectious prostatitis, there will be a difference in the readings up to 0. 5 ° C).
- Check the condition of the lymph nodes in the pelvic region.
- Palpate the lower abdomen, perineum, lower back.
Prostate massage with this form of the disease is not performed due to pronounced pain. In addition, such manipulation can provoke the transmission of infection from the gland to other organs and systems, with subsequent probable death. Suspicion of infectious prostatitis is also a contraindication for such procedures.
Laboratory tests on blood, urine, bacterial cultures are important. With their help, you can determine the type of pathogen and confirm inflammation.
From instrumental methods, it is possible to use TRUS, CT, MRI, uroflowmetry (to determine the rate of outflow of urine) and other methods, at the discretion of the attending physician. Most often, transrectal ultrasound examination in combination with laboratory methods and anamnesis data is sufficient. CT or MRI is done if a tumor is suspected or in doubtful cases.
Modern principles of treatment
If there are no pronounced signs of intoxication of the body, then treatment is allowed at home. If not, hospitalization, intravenous infusions of antibacterial agents, and increased monitoring by medical staff will be required. Either way, a sick man needs bed rest - even light physical activity can cause the infection to spread throughout the body via the bloodstream.
Treatment of patients aims to achieve two goals: to combat pathogenic microflora and improve general well-being. Overall, the movement in this direction is designed to prevent death or the development of complications.
Fight the infection
If in the course of laboratory tests it is established that infectious prostatitis is caused by bacteria (which happens more often), the use of antibacterial agents should become the basis of therapy. If only such treatment is started, then after 2-3 days an improvement in well-being will come. However, for this, the drug must be selected correctly. The duration of taking the drug is also important - it can reach up to a month, depending on the specific drug and the degree of damage to the prostate. Treatment cannot be stopped.
In addition to the type of pathogen, the doctor must take into account other factors.
- Individual characteristics of the patient, the state of the heart, liver and kidneys.
- If possible, make a choice in favor of a stronger drug, overshadowing such bacteriostatic agents.
- The effect of therapy with antibacterial drugs should be bactericidal, that is, aimed at destroying the pathogen, and not at stopping its development in the tissues of the prostate gland.
It is for these reasons that infectious prostatitis cannot be cured by itself. Without medical training and without the skills to interpret diagnostic measures, it is almost impossible to choose the right antibacterial substance. Delay, like the wrong treatment in this case, can cost you your life.
The intensity of pain in infectious prostatitis is such that standard pain relievers and antispasmodics may be useless. In such exceptional cases, to relieve pain, the doctor may prescribe narcotic drugs in a short course.
They can also be assigned:
- Diuretics (if there is no acute urinary retention) for the prevention of cystitis.
- Laxatives (if constipated) to relieve pressure on the prostate gland.
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatories.
- Alpha blockers: to normalize the urination process.
- Muscle relaxants to relieve spasm of the pelvic floor muscles.
If acute urinary retention has started during infectious prostatitis, a urinary catheter can be placed in the patient.
If during therapy it becomes evident that the patient's well-being is not improving, this is a reason for further TRUS to rule out a possible prostate abscess. In doubtful cases, a biopsy of the prostate tissue can also be performed. If the diagnosis is confirmed, the patient undergoes emergency surgery to open and drain the abscess. Antibiotic therapy will not be canceled in this case.
Danger of infectious prostatitis
If a man consulted a doctor in a timely manner and did not violate his prescriptions, recovery almost always occurs. In some variants of the development of events, a transition to a chronic form or the onset of chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is possible.
Other likely consequences:
- pyelonephritis or cystitis;
- blood poisoning;
- the formation of fistulas.
Infectious prostatitis responds well to treatment if started in a timely manner. For this, a man must listen to the state of his health. If the pain begins in the perineal region with a simultaneous increase in body temperature in the anus and impaired urination, you should immediately consult a doctor. Using folk remedies and following the advice of a friend or wife can end in disaster.